& other; Organ regeneration time & throughout; How long is from us?
over the years, in the face of a huge gap of organ donation, through various techniques, scientists are hoping to build more complex organs, such as by the artificial kidney stem cells, and stem cell combination of artificial heart by heart pump and through the organ imaging, selecting suitable materials to print 3 d printing.
maybe, the future of organ transplantation might no longer be necessary conditions for organ donation, the future of regenerative medicine is artificial synthesis of organs.
artificial cartilage and new technologies
toughness comparable & other; Bulletproof vest & throughout;
in our each person’s body has cartilage, this one has no blood vessels, slightly elastic resilience, the support and protection in the body. Maybe you know not much to cartilage, in the magic of cartilage tissue, the composition of water is as high as 80%, this unique organization strength, but it can help our bodies respond to strong pressure.
at the beginning of this year, a published in science magazine new materials research, points out that researchers use and enhanced bulletproof vest the same type of fiber, hardness, toughness and water content of imitating natural cartilage, developed a new type of artificial cartilage. Just last year, the university of Michigan and jiangnan university researchers have developed a similar to human cartilage has the mechanism of the synthesis of cartilage: release water under pressure, the pressure to reduce or disappear after can absorb water like a sponge to restore form. Although artificial cartilage is not first, but compared to earlier materials, new materials can carry on the exchange will be sufficient moisture, artificial cartilage & other; Power & throughout; Even more powerful, the synthetic organization can replace the body’s natural wear and tear or poor healing of cartilage, not only can ease the joint pain, joint replacement surgery can also make a lot of people don’t have to accept.
cartilage in clinical has a very large demand, there are about 850000 people in the United States need surgery to remove or replace the knee joint cartilage. The researchers hope that in the future, artificial organ can be more simple, lower cost, more reliable to meet the demand of patients, the potential application of this material is not confined to the cartilage. They expect composite material under different proportion of similar network constructed, may also apply to other soft tissues.
& other stem cells; Mini & throughout; Heart
& other like a normal heart; Beat & throughout;
in the corners of the world, every day there are patients waiting for organ donation, in the face of huge organ donation gap over the years, through various techniques, scientists are hoping to build more complex human organs. Since pluripotent stem cells have the ability to to a particular organ differentiation was found, artificial organs has become the main direction of stem cell applications. Stem cells belong to has the ability to replicate pluripotent cells, under certain conditions, the cells can differentiate into a variety of functions. Researchers at the university of okayama university and almond shaped, had collected from adult mice kidney adult stem cells to create artificial kidney; Australia and the Netherlands researchers from induced pluripotent stem cells, develop a & other Similar to the kidney tissue throughout the &; .
except in the kidney disease treatment is worth looking forward to the prospect of stem cells to other organs & other Restore & throughout; Also go a long way. As early as 2008 in the case of bronchial transplant, doctors use of stem cells develop in patients with tracheal tissue repair donor trachea, this is also known as stem cells for the first time & other; Organ transplantation & throughout; . In addition, there is one of the most important organ for us, the heart. Heart of mature myocardium cell is non-renewable, stem cell research is more important. Researchers at the university of California, Berkeley, the United States has worked with the Gladstone institute for cardiovascular disease scientists cooperation, to use stem cells to build & other; Mini & throughout; The heart. They are using method of biochemistry and biophysics, produced the degree of ventricular in test tubes, although the shape & other; Mini & throughout; But the rock & other; Little heart & throughout; Can be like the heart of the full size & other; Beat & throughout; .
today, from the first successful heart transplants have been more than 50 years, with mature technology, scientists have been able to coax embryonic stem cells into heart cells. Jinan university affiliated first hospital cardiovascular surgery at Zhang Xiaoshen tells a reporter, stem cell therapy and tissue engineering heart is of great application prospect to end-stage heart failure treatment, in addition to the forward can be used for artificial heart & other; Training & throughout; , but also can expect stem cell therapy for cardiac function restoration, makes some patients avoid heart transplantation.
【 expert voice 】
artificial heart become a hot research topic in recent years
John Oxford University? Stephen Radcliffe hospital? The west than in a media interview, heart pump and stem cells together, may be a good alternative, can help more people. But there’s & other; Shape & throughout; Is not equal to have & other; Function & throughout; , at present the application of artificial organ research mainly essentially or repair and improvement of existing organs, organs also will be incomplete for replacement.
& other; In & lsquo; Hematopoietic stem cells for the treatment of heart failure & rsquo; Experiment, stem cell therapy on all-cause mortality, ejection fraction and the quality of life and the negative control group and no statistical difference, suggests that stem cell therapy did not improve the prognosis of heart failure. Therefore, stem cell therapy in the present clinical trial results are not consistent, whether therapeutic, need to be further in-depth study. Throughout the &; Zhang said, & other; Cardiac tissue engineering & throughout; Is one of the hot spots, human embryonic stem cells and human induced pluripotent stem cells, directional differentiation into particular organ cells, differentiation of cells after has certain availability and scalability, thus being applied in cardiac tissue engineering. We have learned, at present, the researchers have epicardial, by the engineering of human myocardial cells transplanted into nude mice, grafts in the reconstruction of the blood vessels, but can’t see the transplanted tissue and normal myocardial electromechanical coupling. Zhang said, at present the cardiac tissue engineering technology is not applied to clinical, but it has certain clinical application prospect. Throughout the &;
in addition, & other; Artificial heart & throughout; Is also a research focus in the recent decades. & other; At present, the artificial heart is mainly used in the following situations: first, is waiting for a heart transplant patients, because of the irreversible, heart failure and life-threatening artificial heart can become a bridge treatment; Second, it is for patients with severe heart failure, also can be used as a blood pump temporary alternative treatment of the heart. Because of the artificial heart need anticoagulation, and possible complications such as stroke, infections, there have been no long-term use of mature artificial heart products. Throughout the &; Zhang said.
& other; Organ regeneration & throughout; Dream remains challenging
scientists, doctors and patients, are looking forward to & other; There is no rejection, do not need to support drug treatment, there is no ethical dispute era of artificial organ & throughout; The arrival of the. However, artificial organs implanted in the body, whether can with the human body’s own endocrine system and nervous system adapted to and coordination, to maintain long-term survival and carry on the function of the normal?
& other; Artificial organs even with complete composition of cells, organs of a complete form, but it is worth noting that their training environment that is outside the body, and the body in the complex environment cannot be compared, so after transplantation, whether these organs can have the function of normal, worth probe. Throughout the &; Zhang told reporters that it is well known that the human body to the disease, as small as the mood, will cause a series of internal environment change, these changes are completely unable to simulate and replication in vitro, then the artificial organs after transplantation into the human body, in the face of these changes, like normal their organs can make a rapid, accurate and subtle response? For now, don’t know.
American biologist and Nobel laureate gilbert argues that within 50 years, the human will be able to develop all organs of the body. However, from a drop of blood to a blood vessels, a piece of cartilage, a piece of skin, and then to the liver, kidney and heart, is a very complicated system, artificial organs of human & other; Dreams & throughout; Remains challenging. Zhang said, even if the artificial organs to how & other; Imperceptibly & throughout; , & other; Ethics & throughout; Will remain a forever, forever even contentious issues. & other; The ancients cloud, military forces, hay. So I think, in the artificial organ transplantation is used for human disease treatment, in the technology is rapidly developing at present, technology application research, thought, social rules and decisions more eager to see. After all, there are rules, only then may bluewind. Throughout the &; He said.