Why do people stop more and more people?

The most common occurrence of fetal stop is about 8 to 10 weeks, occurred in less than 8 weeks of pregnancy accounted for 80%, mainly because of the development of embryos during this period is the most important, but also for various reasons, the developing fetus suddenly stopped Development, the phenomenon of stillbirth appears. The psychological shadow caused by the alignment of mothers during pregnancy is huge. Why is there more and more people now stopping?

1, mainly because of chromosomal abnormalities, both men and women may have chromosomal abnormalities. Even without fetal stop, chromosomal abnormalities in children born, the probability of occurrence of deformity is also great. Chromosomes are normal parents, sperm and egg combination is also possible chromosomal abnormalities, adverse environmental impact, toxic and harmful substances, radiation, high temperature are all possible influencing factors.

2, the disease of the uterus itself, such as: endometrial, endometrial thin, too thick for embryonic development are adverse. In addition, intrauterine adhesions, uterine fibroids, endometriosis, congenital or injured cervix relaxation, may also lead to fetal stop.

3, reproductive system infections, such as mycoplasma infection, macrophage virus infection, can lead to fetal stop, fetal malformations or abortion. In particular, mycoplasma infection, a higher incidence of mild fetal malformations, severe cases of fetal stop or miscarriage, but also the body injuries to women is also very large.

4, endocrine disorders, in terms of pregnant women, estrogen, progesterone and human chorionic gonadotropin is a very important three hormones, if these hormone levels are not balanced or too low, can not meet the needs of embryonic development, it may lead to Tire stop.

5, immune dysfunction, including anti-sperm antibodies, anti-endometrial antibodies, anti-ovarian antibodies and anti-chorionic gonadotropin antibodies, if the sperm and egg, the mother of these four antibodies, it will hinder the hormone Normal secretion, resulting in the occurrence of fetal stop.

In short, due to the current life pressure, coupled with environmental pollution, smoking, drinking, drinking coffee, exposure to toxic chemicals, etc., may result in fetal unplanned. If there are women who have had a baby stopped, both husband and wife need a detailed examination to determine the exact cause of the stop.

Baby calcium to eat what seven types of food reasonable calcium

During the growth of baby, we also need to pay attention to the supplement of various nutrients, especially for calcium deficiency baby more attention, in the daily diet which should do a good job in this area.

Baby calcium causes

1, vitamin D deficiency, more common in food lack of vitamin D or contact with too little sunshine caused by vitamin D-dependent rickets.

2, chronic diarrhea, steatorrhea, obstructive jaundice can cause vitamin D absorption disorders, resulting in reduced intestinal calcium absorption caused by hypocalcemia.

3, cirrhosis, renal failure, due to hydroxyladenosis of vitamin D, the body can not generate active vitamin D3, the formation of anti-vitamin D rickets.

4, accelerated vitamin C catabolism: long-term use of anti-epileptic drugs such as phenobarbital can shorten the half-life of vitamin D, resulting in hypocalcemia and calcium deficiency.

Baby calcium to eat what

1, milk: milk nutrient-rich, is the best source of human calcium, and calcium and phosphorus ratio is very appropriate, which will help calcium absorption. Therefore, milk is called the closest perfect food “, the best natural food.

2, yogurt: yogurt is a good source of calcium, drink a cup of 15O grams of yogurt to meet the children under the age of 10 required for a large calcium 1/3, adult calcium 1/5.

3, cheese: dairy products is the best choice for food calcium, cheese is the most calcium-rich dairy products, and these calcium is easily absorbed. Cheese calcium content: 250 ml milk = 200 ml yogurt = 40 grams of cheese.

4, calcium-orange juice: Orange is known as the treatment of good fruit, rich in vitamin C, calcium, phosphorus, potassium, 8 ounces (about 226 grams) of orange juice contains calcium (300 mg) content.

5, legumes: legumes nutritional value is very high, most beans contain a considerable amount of calcium. But please bear in mind that one year old children can drink milk, to prevent excessive drinking, so as to avoid protein allergies.

6, kelp: kelp is a high nutritional value of vegetables, not only rich in calcium and iodine, contribute to thyroid hormone synthesis. In addition kelp also contains high-quality protein and unsaturated fatty acids.

7, shrimp: shrimp is rich in protein and minerals, especially calcium content is extremely rich, calcium library, said calcium is calcium calcium is a better way to do more with shrimp baby food supplement is a good way to calcium .

Baby calcium note

1, do not let calcium encounter oxalic acid: spinach, pickled cabbage, amaranth, spinach, bamboo shoots, onions, scallions, soybeans and so contains a lot of oxalic acid, oxalic acid and calcium easily affect the absorption. Therefore, it is best to put the vegetables in hot water during the calcium hot, or 2 hours before meals or 3-4 hours after meals take calcium products.

2, calcium and do not eat mixed with the main meal: Even if there is not too much oxalic acid, if taking calcium products during meal, but also affect the absorption of calcium, mixed with calcium in food can only absorb 20%. As long as the stomach stuffed too much, the effect is not very good. Calcium with early, middle and evening more than half an hour. Do not mix with milk.

3, but not excessive calcium supplement is not high: calcium also amount, not the more the better. Infants and young children daily intake of about 400 mg of calcium, if the amount of calcium intake significantly exceeds the above criteria, may be constipation, or even interfere with the absorption and utilization of other trace elements such as zinc, iron, magnesium, etc., may also lead to kidney , Cardiovascular and other organ tissue calcium deposition, such as the potential risk of kidney stones.

4, vitamin D and baby calcium to eat separately: the real calcium deficiency in children rarely, many children really lack of vitamin D should be. The role of vitamin D is to allow adequate absorption of calcium from the intestine, while ensuring that the body’s calcium does not drain from the urine. Infants and young children daily intake of vitamin D should reach 400 international units. If the amount of vitamin D is not enough, it will show calcium deficiency.

Mycoplasma pneumonia in children how to determine the early detection of eight methods

Pediatric pneumonia is a common disease, including mycoplasma pneumonia, we need more attention, after the children get sick, we have to conduct timely checks and judgments based on the child’s performance.

Pediatric Mycoplasma pneumonia symptoms

1, children infected with mycoplasma pneumonia, often have fever, that is, high and moderate fever, fever, fever for 1-3 weeks, irritating cough as a prominent manifestation, resembling pertussis, with viscous sputum; infants and young children with acute onset, Long course of the disease, severe condition, to breathing difficulties, wheezing more prominent.

2, part of the whole body more than one system performance, chest tightness, myocardia, heartbeat, palpitation, shortness of breath, fever, and some often shortness of breath, sigh; hepatitis appearing poor appetite, vomiting, abdominal discomfort; Variations, vomiting, headache, convulsions, etc. There are also various rashes.

3, Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection with light and heavy, different performance, mild symptoms only repeated cough, often ignored by patients and parents, some can cause allergic cough, therefore, cough for more than 2 weeks, the conditions should be checked chest radiograph , Mycoplasma antibodies to confirm mycoplasma pneumonia.

4, Mycoplasma pneumonia in children is caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae a systemic disease, mostly pneumonia as the main performance, accounting for 20% of children with pneumonia, and some with myocarditis, hepatitis, the past has become atypical pneumonia. Now, with the development of diagnostic techniques, the detection rate is higher, and is also found to be an important pathogen of respiratory tract infections in children, which is receiving more and more attention.

Mycoplasma pneumonia check diagnosis

1, peripheral blood: most of the normal white blood cell count may be increased, but there are also leukopenia.

2, blood biochemical: ESR faster, mostly light, moderate faster. Anti-O “antibody titers normal part of sick children serum aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase increased.

MP detection: Early detection of children with sputum and other sputum in children with sputum and lung tissue MP-16SRDNA or P1 adhesion protein gene can also be isolated from sputum, nasal secretions, throat swab MP.

4, serum antibody detection: serum antibodies by complement fixation test, indirect hemagglutination test, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, indirect immunofluorescence assay and other methods, or by detection of antigen to be diagnosed early.

5, sputum, nose and throat swab culture: Mycoplasma pneumoniae can be obtained, but takes about 3 weeks, while antisera can inhibit its growth, but also by hemolysis of red blood cells to confirm negative culture. Two weeks after onset, about half of the cases produce antibodies.

6, erythrocyte condensation test positive, titration titer in the 1:32 or more, the recovery of 4 times the significance of significant increase. Streptococcal MG agglutination test was positive in 40-50% of cases, with MG Streptococcal Lectin titer of 1:40 or higher in the blood and a gradual increase in titer to 4-fold.

7, X-ray examination: X-ray changes are divided into four kinds:

(1) hilar shadow thickening is prominent;

(2) bronchopneumonia changes;

(3) interstitial pneumonia changes;

(4) uniform real shadow. Slight signs of chest shadow significant, is one of the characteristics of the disease. Sometimes with pleural effusion, pulmonary X-ray changes is also one of its characteristics.

8, ECG and B-ultrasound: If necessary, check the ECG and B-to determine whether there is myocardial damage and liver damage.

Pediatric mycoplasma pneumonia treatment

1, the general treatment:

(1) Respiratory isolation: due to mycoplasma infection can cause a small epidemic, and children with Mycoplasma long after the body up to 1 to 2 months old, only the performance of upper respiratory tract infection in infancy symptoms. Pneumonia occurs after repeated infections. At the same time during the infection of MP is easy to re-infection of other viruses, leading to aggravating disease delay healing, therefore, children or children with a history of close contact should be possible to achieve respiratory isolation to prevent re-infection and cross-infection.

(2) Nursing: Should pay attention to rest, nursing and diet. If necessary, take a small amount of antipyretics, and taking traditional Chinese medicine (see bronchitis). (3) oxygen therapy: the performance of severe hypoxia, or severe airway obstruction, oxygen should be promptly. The same method and the general pneumonia.

2, symptomatic treatment: other symptomatic treatment is also the same with bronchitis section.

(1) Expectorant: the purpose is to thin the sputum, easy to discharge, or easy to increase the chance of bacterial infection, but few effective expectorants.

(2) stop the wheezing: severe cases of wheezing, bronchodilators can be used, such as aminophylline oral 4 ~ 6mg / (kg · d) 6h once; also available salbutamol (salbutamol) inhalation.

3, the application of antibiotics: According to MP microbiological characteristics, any antibiotics such as penicillin, which can hinder the synthesis of micro-cell wall, are ineffective against mycoplasma, so the treatment of MP infection, antibiotics should be used to inhibit protein synthesis, including macrolides, Tetracycline, chloramphenicol, etc. In addition, there are lincomycin, clindamycin (clindamycin), vancomycin and sulfonamides such as sulfamethoxazole? Azole (SMZ) for selection. Mycoplasma preferred macrolide antibiotics sensitive, erythromycin as the drug of choice.

Pediatric Mycoplasma pneumonia care

1, stand up and turn more to help discharge respiratory secretions. When the baby coughs for a long time, it will be very uncomfortable to sleep. Mom and Dad remember to turn the baby back and help the baby discharge the respiratory secretions.

2, eat more fruit, soup, eat less eggs. To light food, add more water and vitamin C, but be careful not to eat too much at once, too much protein can cause indigestion.

3, nasal congestion using cotton swabs, nasal suction device. Baby stuffy nose, nasal congestion can be stained with warm cotton swab moistened nasal scab, little by little to remove the nasal cap, parents should not pay too much attention Oh. Choose a small cotton swab, it is better than the traditional cotton swabs. Nasal suction device can come in handy at this time.

4, bring their own hygrometer, keep the air circulation, windows 2 to 3 times a day. Own a hygrometer, there is a big supermarket to sell oh. Maintain the indoor air circulation, windows 2 to 3 times a day, control the indoor temperature and humidity, the temperature is about 18 ℃ ~ 22 ℃, the humidity is about 60%.

5, forehead (fever paste), alcohol brush. If the baby has a fever, cold towel can be given forehead to lower the heat to the hot paste can also use oh. In addition, 30% to 50% of the alcohol brush can also help baby physical cooling.

6, the fumes in the kitchen, indoor cigarettes to try to avoid. These fumes can easily reduce the baby’s resistance, get the disease.

7, on time vaccination. I remember in time with the baby to play a vaccination, such as a class of flu vaccine have to be considered.

8, breastfeeding, timely addition of cod liver oil. They are all good for enhancing the mucosal resistance to respiratory diseases.

How to determine the performance of children with acute laryngitis four different periods

Pediatric laryngitis is a disease that occurs from time to time, of which acute laryngitis we have to pay special attention to the child after the disease, there will be abnormal performance, we have to make timely judgments, but also to accurately check the diagnosis.

Acute laryngitis in children

1, early onset: Some children without any aura symptoms. Some are sick in the middle of the night, began to bursts cough. Or after the event appeared inspiratory throat and inspiratory dyspnea, auscultation of breath sounds clear, normal heart rate.

2, early onset: a slight cold symptoms, may not be associated with fever, or only mild fever. Hypnotism and inspiratory dyspnea occur when quiet, showing “哐 哐 哐” sound or dog barking, that is, like a dog cough sound, throat snore, it seems that cough can not sputum. Auscultation can be heard and throat conduction or tubular breath sounds, heart rate faster, up to 120-140 beats / min, at the same time began to appear hoarseness.

3, the incidence of mid-term: In addition to early onset symptoms, but also paroxysmal irritability, lips, nails cyanosis, pale blue or pale mouth, auscultatory lung breath sounds weakened or inability to hear, blunt heart rate, heart rate of 140 to 160 times / Minute.

4, exacerbation of the disease: the general condition of light during the day and aggravate at night, laryngeal edema often occurs due to the rapid development of laryngeal inflammation at night, resulting in acute laryngeal obstruction. Children may be due to difficulty breathing and awoke, the sound will be more severe hoarseness, breath nasal incitement, inhalation, “three concave sign”, that appear supraclavicular fossa, suprasternal fossa and upper abdomen depression, baby lips bruising, Pale. Accompanied by high fever, irritability, sweating and so on. If the condition aggravates further, it may turn from restlessness to semi-coma or unconsciousness, presenting symptoms of being temporarily quiet, pale, incontinence, asphyxia and coma, and may even result in death from suffocation in children. These changes often take place in hours, quite dangerous, parents must not be taken lightly.

Pediatric laryngitis judge

More acute onset, more than fever, hoarseness, cough and so on. Initial hoarseness is not serious, when there is crying crying, then inflamed infringement and subglottic region, then into “empty”, “empty” cough sound, night sound symptoms worse. Severe illness may appear aspiration throat wheeze, inspiratory difficulty breathing, suprasternal fossa, supraclavicular fossa, intercostal and upper abdominal soft tissue inspiratory trauma symptoms such as laryngeal obstruction. Serious children around the mouth and nose cyanosis or pale, toe cyanosis, with varying degrees of irritability, sweating. If not treated, pale, breathless, circulatory, respiratory failure, coma, convulsions, and even death.

More secondary to rhinitis, pharyngitis, upper respiratory tract infection. For the epidemic of influenza, pneumonia, measles, chickenpox, whooping cough, scarlet fever and other acute infectious diseases of the precursor disease.

Acute laryngitis in children

1, direct laryngoscopy: visible laryngeal mucosal congestion, swelling, vocal cord also red bloodshot, there is dilation of blood vessels, glottis often accompanied by viscous secretions, subglottic mucosal swelling to the middle prominent a narrow cavity.

2, auscultation of the lung and pleura: lung and pleura auscultation is the most basic lung examination, one of the most important methods for the diagnosis of pulmonary disease is of great significance.

3, physical examination: Visible throat congestion, fake vocal cord swelling, subglottic mucosa was spindle-shaped swelling. According to the extent of the lesion may occur throat and inspiratory dyspnea, pulmonary auscultation can smell throat conduction or tubular breath sounds.

Diagnosis of acute laryngitis in children

As for the laryngoscopy, visible throat mucosal congestion, swelling, vocal cord also red bloodshot, there is dilatation of blood vessels, often associated with purulent mucosal secretions, subglottic mucosal swelling to the middle prominent a narrow cavity. Diagnosis based on its unique symptoms such as: hoarseness, throat wheezing, “empty”, “empty” kind of cough sound, aspiration of breathing difficulties, no more diagnosis. If necessary, laryngoscopy.

How to reduce the risk of infant “cradle death”?

Healthy babies suddenly die without any warnings, leaving many mothers feeling hurt. This occurs in 2 to 6 months in infants who abnormalities, medically known as “sudden infant death syndrome”, commonly known as “cradle death.” The following are recent studies found by experts related incentives.

Infant “cradle death” incentive

1, antigen allergy

A “cradle of death” can occur as a result of a contact-specific reaction of one or several antigens, such as milk, dust, polyester gas, insects, etc., or a potential immunodeficiency defect in the infant.

2, esophageal reflux

Neonatal esophageal lower gastric cardia sphincter connected with the stomach, the function is not perfect. One-time eating too much pressure in the stomach, the food reflux esophagus, causing vagal reflex caused by breathing and bradycardia, and induced laryngeal spasm asphyxiation death.

3, metabolic disorders

A variety of factors lead to abnormal hepatic glycogen metabolism, hepatic reduction of ethylene propyl linolenic acid, affecting respiratory regulation; body vitamin B1 deficiency, dopamine, norepinephrine and epinephrine surge and other metabolic disorders, can induce sudden death.

4, upper respiratory tract obstruction

Due to respiratory infections, or due to excessive nasal secretions and viscous, soft palate slanting, tongue drooping, mandibular greater mobility and other reasons, resulting in airway obstruction, apnea death.

5, autonomic dysfunction

Various causes of autonomic dysfunction, leading to hypoxia stress response in the body, in the airway obstruction or other causes of hypoxemia, can not cry for help, eventually leading to brain cell damage and the occurrence of Hypercapnia and increased pulmonary hypertension accelerated death.

6, drug poisoning hazards

The mother smoked during pregnancy or passive smoking, perinatal complications occurred; infant sleep closed and passive smoking too much, but also the cause of sudden death.

7, genetic factors

Due to dominant chromosomal, arrhythmic death. However, such sudden death have a family history of arrhythmia.

How to reduce the risk of sudden baby’s death?

1, let the baby sit back to sleep

This is one of the most important things you can do to protect your baby. Most people do not know that sleeping on their side is not safe. In fact, there is a double chance of sleeping in the baby’s sleeping side. But remember, if you always let your baby sit on your back, it may cause the back or side of the baby’s head to have flattened areas, called migraine or flathead syndrome.

2, pay attention to health care during pregnancy

In order to ensure your baby’s health and reduce the risk of preterm and low birth weight infants, which increase the incidence of sudden infant death, you need to be aware of prenatal care and nutrition. Do not smoke or take illicit drugs throughout pregnancy.

3, to avoid the baby overheating

To avoid overheating baby sleep, do not put him too tight, do not cover the baby’s head with a blanket. Baby sleeping room can not be too warm, as long as adults wear uniforms feel comfortable degree can be. Signs that your baby may overheat include sweating, damp hair, prickly heat, shortness of breath, difficulty sleeping, fever, and more.

4, to avoid contact with sources of infection

Sudden infant death sometimes occurs in conjunction with respiratory or gastrointestinal infections. So it’s best to let other people wash their hands before taking the baby. And try to keep your baby from getting sick when possible.