Science ZiKan: aristolochic acid and liver cancer related these herbs to be wary of

you, or your family friends around, taking herbal medicine? If so, please pay special attention to in the use of prescription, whether to contain the following elements:

close also, fangchi root, radix aristolochiae, aristolochia, bones, asarum, south wind combination, tube south, three tubes, cinnabar lotus, fairy cane, tiger, rattan incense, city huai, snake, butterfly dark, forced back blood ray, Bai Jinguo lam, fake big potato.

these herbs, contain a call & other; Aristolochic acid & throughout; Chemicals.

and on October 18, Science magazine’s Translational Medicine ZiKan (Science Translational Medicine) in the form of a cover story, published an article entitled & other; Aristolochic acids and their derivatives are widely implicated in liver working in Taiwan and throughout the Asia” The research paper.

the paper, by using the method of pathological specimens sequencing proof in Asia (especially Taiwan, mainland China), the occurrence of cancer of the liver is closely related to the mutation caused by aristolochic acid. In other words, these herbs, cause the risk of liver cancer, is worthy of attention.

kidney failure, tumor behind & other; Black & throughout;

in 1956, bosnia, Bulgaria, Croatia, etc in the Balkans popular a kind of “chronic interstitial nephritis”, this kind of nephritis can lead to kidney function decline. Many local farmers suffering from the disease, but no one knows the illness from where.

in 1964, China has reported two cases of & other; Very type of kidney failure & throughout; Cases, Chinese scholars Wu Hansong found these two patients had taking herbal medicine also decoction, but the report did not attention in the medical community in China, only be regarded as alone.

until the 1990 s, the disease to find & other; Behind the & throughout; .

it happened in Hungary, when a group of young women taking herbal medicine to lose weight, suddenly appeared a lot of kidney failure, this situation is causing concern in the local government and health authorities, the final confirmation is because the diet drugs, there is a call & other; Wide acutum & throughout; Plants, led to the incident.

and at the same time, in our country have appeared in the famous & other; Gentian purging liver pills & throughout; Events, only a hospital china-japan friendship hospital, the official xinhua news agency reported from 1999 to 2001, more than 100 patients with uremia.

in the end all aim at the aristolochic acid behind these herbs. At the same time, a study shows, aristolochic acid can not only cause uremia, can also lead to kidney cancer, bladder cancer and urinary tract epithelial tumor and a series of tumor.

in 2001 the world health organization (who) is put forward for aristolochic acid drugs of the alarm.

in 2002, the FDA (food and drug administration) banned all use herbal medicines containing aristolochic acid. Hong Kong and Taiwan and then China has banned announced to stop imports and sales of wood used herbs containing aristolochic acid.

in 2003, China’s state food and drug administration to cancel off also drug standard; In 2004, the state food and drug administration cancelled a wide and radix aristolochiae drug standard. At the same time, “Chinese pharmacopoeia” cancelled record since 2005 in Chinese herbs containing aristolochic acid.

but at present, our country is still on the market a large number of herbal medicines and proprietary Chinese medicine contain aristolochic acid, and taking these drugs will bring huge liver, kidney toxicity hazard.

is more terrible, kidney liver injury caused by aristolochic acid is irreversible, irreparable, from the moment of taking, he will cause damage to the human body.

as this period science magazine cover comments, The Dark Side of The Herbal medicines (The Dark Side of The an Herbal Medicine).

in 2008, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (International Agency for Research on Cancer, IARC) has classified aristolochic acid type 1 carcinogens. Class aristolochic acid substances listed as 2 carcinogens.

in 2012, but also because of its strong toxicity, will all classes of aristolochic acid substances (aristolochic acid, containing aristolochic acid compounds and position) become a class 1 carcinogen.

why aristolochic acid has so much harm? This is the toxicology of aristolochic acids material principle began to speak.

in 2013, the journal science translational medicine published two big studies, from a perspective of the mechanism of toxicity of aristolochic acid.

the Johns & middot; Institutions such as Johns Hopkins university and the state university of New York at stony brook, the researchers report in a study of their contact with aristolochic acid on the 19 of urinary tract cancer patients and the lack of contact with the poison of the other seven patients were all exons group sequenced.

it was found that aristolochic acid exposure group per patient an average of 753 mutations occur, rather than per patient aristolochic acid exposure group only 91 genetic mutations.

studies have shown that aristolochic acid number of genetic mutations can cause higher than tobacco and ultraviolet ray, is currently the strongest genes known to cause sudden genetic toxicology.

another study from Singapore, the United States and China, Taiwan, and other medical institutions in collaboration with researchers. They use whole genome sequencing technology and exon group confirmed that contact aristolochic acid may cause the past is considered by other carcinogenic factors lead to cancer.

and the subsequent development of this study, is this article released the day before yesterday.

from the United States, Singapore, Taiwan, the researchers collected from Taiwan, mainland China, Japan, Singapore and Europe and the United States and liver specimens, the aristolochic acid caused by gene mutations.

they had collected more than 1400 cases of liver cancer specimens, according to the specimen presence of aristolochic acid induced mutations are classified. Results show that the Asian population of liver cancer and aristolochic acid mutation is highly correlated, and the highest in Taiwan and mainland China.

98 cases of cancer of the liver pathological samples of Taiwan, 78% have the feature of aristolochic acid induced, the mainland of 89 cases of liver cancer specimens, 47% accord with aristolochic acid genetic characteristics.

in Europe and the United States, the figure is 1.7% and 1.7% respectively. & have spent

aristolochic acid in different countries and regions liver cancer mutation rate. The more the light is red, liver cancer and aristolochic acid result in sudden related

which is now prove aristolochic acid induced liver cancer is the most powerful evidence.

in the face of aristolochic acid, what can we do?

China is a kidney disease,

kidney big country, is also a power of liver cancer.

new liver cancer patients in China more than 400000, 2015, accounts for more than half of the world. While the average risk of liver cancer in our country, but also the 3 ~ 4 times as much of Europe and the United States.

before we put the blame for our country the widespread dissemination of viral hepatitis and food storage (aflatoxin). But the latest research papers, let’s find a likely cause harm more directly.

what can we do?

in the country has not yet been introduced stricter aristolochic acid before drug management regulations, every one of us can do, is to avoid those enumerated above contain aristolochic drugs.

at the same time, try to let more people know about the knowledge of the genetic toxicity of aristolochic acid, promote national of aristolochic acid drugs more strict management.

these are not just for the sake of our own, but to the next generation. We, worthy of a more secure environment. Reference literature:

1. Poon, S L, Pang, S T, McPherson J R, et al. The Genome – wide mutational signatures of aristolochic acid and its application as a screening tool [J]. Science translational medicine, 2013, 5 (197) : 197 ra101-197 ra101.

2. Gentian purging liver pills & ndash; & ndash; Functions of medicine or & other; Pathogenic & throughout; The root cause?

3. Poon S L, Pang S T, McPherson J R, et al. Genome-wide mutational signatures of aristolochic acid and its application as a screening tool[J]. Science translational medicine, 2013, 5(197): 197ra101-197ra101

4. Hoang M L, Chen C H, Sidorenko V S, et al. Mutational signature of aristolochic acid exposure as revealed by whole-exome sequencing[J]. Science translational medicine, 2013, 5(197): 197ra102-197ra102.

5. Chen W, Zheng R, Baade P D, et al. Cancer statistics in China, 2015[J]. CA: a cancer journal for clinicians, 2016, 66(2): 115-132.

(原文标题:Science 子刊证明:马兜铃酸和肝癌发生相关,这些草药需提防)

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