data figure: student holding a bamboo slips do & other; Bamboo slips throughout Chinese hold &; The action. & have spent China news agency reporters wen-hua liu taken
【 whom 】
youth period is a key stage for adopting a healthy lifestyle. Start a healthy way of life, is crucial to the health of life.
the China youth and children research center & other; Children’s way of life throughout the study &; Group successively in 2004 and 2004, two questionnaire, way of life for the children of 36 survey in 2004 primary and secondary schools, students effective sample size of 2498 people, men and women in half; 48 the 2016 survey of primary and secondary schools, the effective sample size 4196, roughly half men and women, half and half between urban and rural areas.
group by comparing 2004 and 2016 urban children’s survey results, reveals the change trend of children’s life style, and based on this, advances the improving way of life, promote the children healthy countermeasures and Suggestions. This paper extracts from for the report.
with the rapid economic and social development, children’s way of life also in the change. We by comparing 2004 and 2016 urban children lifestyle survey data, try to analyze the trends of contemporary children’s lifestyle changes, as well as the impact on health.
1. The diet and nutrition to health
compared with 2004, the school day, urban children eating at home, eat more at school. Data shows, the proportion of three meals a day of eating at home has a different degree of reduced. At home to eat breakfast, lunch and dinner decreased by 14.3%, 14.3% and 14.3% respectively. Children at school to eat three square meals a day, eat breakfast, lunch and dinner at school increased 3.9%, 6.9% and 3.9% respectively. It is important to note that eating breakfast at the roadside stall ratio increased by 4.8%.
data show that in the day of rest, children at home to eat breakfast, lunch and dinner are increased, the proportion of the increased by 0.5%, 8.5% and 0.5% respectively. Is day off in a restaurant.
compared with 2004, the proportion of urban children often eat snacks. Data shows, often eat snacks city children declined from 56.1% to 48.5%.
however, compared with 2004, the phenomenon of urban children do not eat breakfast markedly increased. Data show that & other; Eat breakfast every day & throughout; Urban children from 77.0% to 64.4%, reduce 12.6%; While & other; Throughout most of the time to eat &; & other; Rarely eat & throughout; & other; Never eat & throughout; Breakfast city children increased by 6.5, 6.5 and 1% respectively.
2. The overall sleep quality
overall, urban children present the decline in quality of sleep.
compared with 2004, 2016 urban children sleep time is reduced, especially primary school students. Data show that urban elementary school day 10 hours of sleep, 2016 (21.7%) less than 11.7% in 2004 (33.4%); Double cease day 10 hours of sleep, 2016 (54.9%) were less than 13.8% in 2004 (68.7%). City middle school day 9 hours of sleep, 2016 (23.1%) and 2004 (22.9%) were unchanged, double cease day can sleep 9 hours, 2016 (64.5%) than in 2004 (80.7%) were reduced by 80.7%.
analyzing the reason of the decline in 2016 and 2004, the city one of the five children sleep not enough reasons are & other; Homework more & throughout; & other; Homework slowly & throughout; & other; Is there’s no reason to sleep & throughout; & other; Schools require to school earlier & throughout; And & other The night dreaming much more special & throughout; . Overall, contemporary urban children most options of rate increases, the factors that affect children sleep more diversified.
compared with 2004, 2016, the proportion of urban children because of the Internet lead to lack of sleep increased from 2.8% to 13.6%, as playing video games lead to lack of sleep increased from 4.1% to 4.1%, increased by about 5 times and three times respectively.
3. The health concepts appear fade
by comparative analysis found that agreed & other; Good health habits can help fight disease & throughout; & other; Poor personal hygiene habits can affect the health of the whole society & throughout; & other; People’s health should include mental health & throughout; , the proportion of 2016 (93.3%, 76.8%, 86.1%), respectively, compared with 2004 (97.3%, 79.8%, 89.3%) by 4.0, 3.0 and 3.2%; Don’t agree with & other; Filthy ate not sick & throughout; & other; The standard of health is not disease & throughout; & other; Bad health habits do not represent not civilization throughout the &; , the proportion of 2016 (77.6%, 53.4%, 53.4%), respectively, compared with 2004 (92.1%, 55.7%, 66.4%) by 14.5, 2.3 and 13.0%. And 2016, according to a survey of urban and rural difference is small, visible, contemporary children health conception is the overall characteristics, present more apparent generation characteristics.
urban children health habits step backwards: in addition to don’t eat leftovers, the results of a survey of 2016 (75.3%), 73.9% higher than in 2004 (73.9%), the proportion of the remaining options have different degree of reduced, for example, when having a meal with others using the dining-table, open a window ventilated for the bedroom, and carry with paper towel or handkerchief, 2016 (43.0%, 82.1%, 64.6%) than in 2004 (62.2%, 91.7%, 72.3%) down 19.2, 9.6 and 7.7%, respectively.
4. Sports participation increased, conditions improved
in recent years, children’s sports got unprecedented attention and recognition, in general, children’s sports participation increased, limit movement in time and site factors, such as have improved significantly.
compared with 2004, the city elementary and middle schools gym class hours increased significantly. Among children in the city, every week there are more than 3 section and the proportion of physical education, from 46.2% in 2004 to 63.7% in 2016, up 17.5%.
compared with 2004, the city children’s extracurricular sports time increased significantly. 2004 urban children sport at ordinary times more than 1 hour, 8.7% 29.0% over the weekend, sport at ordinary times more than 1 hour in 2016, 35.7% of 53.1% over the weekend, respectively is 27, rose by 24.1% in 2004.
from the point of subjective feeling, the proportion of urban children feel less sports dropped from 50.8% in 2004 to 48.7% in 2016, down 2.1%. The cause of insufficient exercise has also changed. & other; No time to exercise & throughout; From 70.0% to 70.0%, down 16.3%, the largest decline; & other; No suitable place & throughout; From 38.7% to 38.7%, down 12.7%; & other; Parents don’t let the movement throughout the &; Percentage, from 6.4% to 3.8%, down 2.6%. This suggests that the age development to today, time factor and site factors, though still limits the movement of children to participate in, but have improved significantly.
5. Discretionary entertainment time reduced
the study found that while young children’s learning burden relief, but don’t have time to play more and more children, electronic media to enhance the influence of outdoor play, parents’ restrictions on playing, children’s recreational concept also have no obvious progress.
in recent years, the burden becoming basic education stage in our country, the central task is to standardize the behavior of running a school has achieved a certain effect. The survey found that children feel burden is heavy city has decreased. Compared with 2004, feel the burden is heavy city children from 35% to 30.6%, reduced by 4.4%. Accordingly, learning burden moderate increased from 45.4% to 51.8%, increased by 6.4%, the learning burden lighter by 19.6% to 17.6%, down 2%.
however, children playing time did not increase. In 2004, according to survey, 13.9% of urban children said not to play, to 2016, this proportion had risen to 17.7%, up by 3.8%. Children need to be added, discretionary entertainment time reduced is a worldwide problem. At the university of Michigan survey showed that from 1979 to 1979, the child lost 12 hours of free time a week, time used to organized sports doubled, and the visit of the passive type leisure time increased five times.
according to the survey, often or sometimes & other; In order to watching TV or surfing the Internet, don’t go out to play & throughout; Urban children with 10.8% and 15.2% respectively, while 2004 survey this two data were 3.2% and 10.2% respectively, that is to say, often or sometimes give up go out to play for electronic products children increased by 12.6%.
6. Some Suggestions to improve children’s way of life
China towards health, first of all to improve young children’s way of life, improve the health of children.
first of all, parents are children diet, sleep, health, sports, leisure, and other living habits of the first impact source, is a healthy lifestyle role-models and shapers. In my parents’ demonstration and prompting, children are more likely to acquisition and stick to a healthy lifestyle. Parents should set a good example, consciously cultivate good living habits, the accumulation of knowledge, learning healthy life skills, improve health literacy. Parents should lead the children to develop healthy family life system, especially pay attention to eat breakfast every day, regular work and rest, avoid to stay up late, assure enough sleep; At the same time also should take exercise regularly with children and other entertainment activities, pay attention to train the ability of the child’s life, sports and leisure. In addition, parents should not only focus on the child’s physical condition, regular physical examination, medical treatment in time, should also pay more attention to observe the child’s emotions, guide children through sports, leisure, channel development interests and positive feelings, care for the child’s mental health, promote the development of children towards health, self-confidence.
second, school is for children and the related personnel to conduct health education important platform, school health education is an effective strategy to enhance children’s physical and mental health. Strengthening school health education, and need to renew the idea of. School health education should focus on establishing diversified comprehensive health plans, improve the school health education service system, from a health education curriculum design, mental health education and consulting, school sports environment to improve the service level, students’ nutrition promote the establishment and improvement of the diversification of school health education model. Will be incorporated in the multidisciplinary curriculum, school health education and explore the school health education knowledge system and interdisciplinary course content and methods of the effective contact, and designed to operate course package. School health education should focus on strengthening parent-school cooperative, encourage parents to participate in school health education, enhancing the family and school health education in schools of communication and cooperation.
again, propaganda and to develop a healthy lifestyle is the priority for the government and the common responsibility of the whole society. Family planning department of public health core information to promote a healthy lifestyle, promote healthy supporting tools, cultivate a healthy lifestyle instructors, to develop a healthy lifestyle instructors into family, community, into the unit, and went into the school, the hospital activities. Sports authorities to build sports fitness facilities, provide fitness guidance, promote healthy culture, hand in hand to develop health family planning and other related departments exercise rehabilitation doctors, coaches and other related personnel, to promote the national physique monitoring and medical check-up organic combination, promote the national fitness and health depth fusion. Community is an important space, children grow up to be the key to strengthen the construction of community health, improve the community health service, leisure entertainment, advocate a healthy lifestyle.
in the end, the long-term effect of health education is the key to voluntarily by the children. Health education should be to motivate the children responsible for their own health as an important target, strengthen the dominant position of children in health education, fundamentally change the consciousness and behavior of the children, make them establish scientific health values, and to develop a kind of beneficial to individuals, to family responsible for, and advocates of a healthy lifestyle for the society.
(the author: Zhao Xiasun macro yan zhang xudong)