in this paper, starting from the southern weekend
article | ferris & middot; Jia Buer (Ferris Jabr)
bring about influenza viruses usually enter the body through the eyes, nose or mouth. (data graph/chart)
every year there are many people died because of this common virus, their internal body what happened? How is the leading causes of death?
one Sunday in November 2017, phoenix, 20, Alan ni & middot; Jose column tower (Alani Murrieta) began to feel uncomfortable, leave the work early. As her family and friends in the local media and BuzzFeed net news channel described, she have no disease before, but her health plummet. The next day, she went to an urgent care clinic, where she was diagnosed with flu, doctor of antiviral drugs for her & ndash; & ndash; Tamiflu. By Tuesday morning, however, she began to breathe, accompanied by vomiting blood. Family took her to the hospital, X-ray showed she had pneumonia, this lung inflammation may be caused by viral infections, it could also be caused by a bacterial infection, or there may be caused by both. Doctors for jose column tower intravenous antibiotics, when her heart stops beating, the doctor will she transferred to the intensive care unit. The doctor’s first aid to revive her, but she again the heart stopped. On November 28, 25 points at 3 p.m. on Tuesday, diagnosed with influenza a day later, the hospital jose column tower declared dead.
according to the world health organization and the United States centers for disease control and prevention (CDC) data: worldwide, flu annually from 3 million to 5 million in severe cases, and 291000 to 646000 deaths; The annual total have very big difference. The CDC estimates that: during the period of 1976 to 2005, the United States each year of flu-related death toll ranged from little more than 3000 to 49000. During the period of 2010 to 2016, the United States each year of flu-related deaths between 12000 and 56000.
but what exactly is & other; Of flu-related death throughout the &; ? The flu is how to kill people? The answer short and terror: in most cases, the body in the process of efforts for their own treatment committed suicide. John & middot; The Johns Hopkins university center for health and safety of infectious diseases physician to Miami Walsh & middot; Dali and o (Amesh Adalja) said: & other; Died of flu is not as died from a bullet wound or black widow spider bite, the presence of the virus itself is not kill people, the cause of infectious disease usually has a complex interaction between patients with. Throughout the &;
the influenza virus usually enters the body through the eyes, nose or mouth, and then began to hijack the nose and throat virus in human cells to replicate itself. Virus with unstoppable trend gathered, caused a strong reaction from the immune system. In order to eliminate the threat, the immune system sends out a large number of large Numbers of white blood cells, antibodies and inflammatory molecules. T cells attack and destroy the harbor virus, especially can attack the virus tends to dominate the respiratory tract and lungs. In most healthy adults, the immune response process is work, they will recover within a few days or weeks. Sometimes, however, the immune system’s response is too strong, too much destruction of lung tissue and can no longer be enough oxygen to blood to the lungs, resulting in a lack of oxygen, and death.
in the other cases, not the flu virus itself caused the difficult and potentially fatal immune response to cope, but used the overburdened secondary infection of the immune system. Secondary infection is usually bacterial infections, lung infection is usually some kind of streptococcus and staphylococcus. The bacteria in the respiratory tract infection may spread to other parts of the body and blood, and even lead to septic shock. Septic shock is a life-threatening, affect the whole body of invasive inflammation, multiple organ damage. Kathleen, director of the children’s hospital of Philadelphia allergies and MianYiKe & middot; Su wen (Kathleen Sullivan) according to the autopsy study was carried out to estimate: in flu-related deaths, about a third of people because the virus brought down the immune system, and the third die in secondary bacterial infection (usually a lung infection), caused by an immune response, the remaining three points to die of one or more other organ failure.
in addition to bacterial pneumonia, influenza is also a wide variety of secondary complications, has a relatively mild sinus infections and ear infection, there are also more serious infections, such as myocarditis, encephalitis, myositis and rhabdomyolysis. Secondary complications may include reitman syndrome and guillain-barre syndrome, began to appear in the virus infection after reitman syndrome is usually a kind of magical brain diseases, and guillain-barre syndrome is also a kind of disease caused by virus, in this kind of disease around the immune system attacks the nervous system. Sometimes, guillain-barre syndrome can over a period of time result in hemiplegia or almost completely paralyzed, so it need to keep the patient to breathe using artificial respirator again. These complications are uncommon, but may cause deaths.
the first virus infection caused by the number of immune response to death compared with the number of secondary bacterial infection to death, which is more or less to a certain extent, depends on the strain and the patient degree of clean living space. Some studies show that: in the known world in 1918 during an influenza pandemic, most people died of secondary bacterial infection. But the more toxic strain & ndash; & ndash; As a cause of bird flu strain, were more likely to rely on their own can defeat the immune system. Dali said: o & other; There is a premise is that strain caused more intense inflammatory response. In addition, it also has to do with people age group. During the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic, infected people are mostly young adults, we had observed that many patients infected with primary viral pneumonia. Throughout the &;
in a particularly vulnerable to infection of the season, most of flu-related deaths occur among children and the elderly, both of which are extremely vulnerable. Immune system is adaptive network of various organs, with the passage of time it learned how to best way to identify and respond to threats. The relatively immature immune system of children, so for threat may not be able to make the best response. In contrast, the elderly usually due to age and underlying disease double factors to weaken the immune system. Whether it’s a very small children or very old old people, their ability to endure self immune system attacks and the ability to recover from attack may be weaker. According to the world health organization survey: in addition to children 6 to 59 months and older than 65 – year – old man, the most likely people to have potentially fatal complications pregnant women, health care workers and people with certain chronic diseases, the chronic diseases including HIV/AIDS, asthma, heart disease or lung disease.
the CDC data indicate that so far, the United States in this flu season more than six thousand people have tested positive for influenza laboratory confirmed there are 856 people is due to the associated with the flu and hospitalization. Prevent flu and many potentially fatal complication is the most effective method of vaccination.
(mooncraft translation from www.scientificamerican.com)